Heat pump is a device that transfers dissipated thermal energy to the heating circuit. The principle of operation of a heat pump, based on the Carnot’s inverse cycle.
Air-water heat pumps are intended for using of air energy and its transmittion for heating or cooling water.
The use of heat pumps is a flexible and economical alternative to a gas, solid fuel and electric boiler.
The energy-efficient characteristics of this system make it a right choice, that reduces energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions.
Heat pumps allow to extract energy from the air and use it to heat or cool the coolant. The optimal range of its operations is from -15 to+45 °С, and at the output temperature of the energy carrier is from 60 to 70 ºС.
The refrigerant under the high preassure through the capillary hole, enters the evaporator, where, due to a sharp decrease in pressure, the evaporation process takes place. In this case, the refrigerant takes away heat from the internal walls of the evaporator, and the evaporator in its turn takes away heat from the enviroment, due to which it is constantly heated or cooled. The compressor absorbs the refrigerant from the evaporator, compresses it, due to which the temperature of the refrigerant increases sharply and pushes into the condenser. In addition, in a condenser, heated as a result of compression, the refrigerant gives heat (the temperature approximately 85-125 degrees Celsius) to the heating circuit and passes into the liquid state. The process is repeated continuously. When the temperature in the house reaches the required level, the electric circuit is broken by the thermostat and the heat pump stops working. When the temperature in the heating circuit drops, the thermostat will restart the heat pump. In this way, the refrigerant in the heat pump makes a reverse Carnot cycle.
The modern models are equipped with built-in protection against overheating, incorrect connection and voltage drop across the network. The unit uses an air-water heat exchanger of a ribben type and axial rotary fan.
The heat exchanger is arranged according to the scheme a pipe in a pipe with a working range of preassure from 48 to 1000 bar and has a high efficiency.
Heat pumps not only can heat the premises, but also provide hot water supply, as well as air conditioning. But at the same time in the heat pumps should be a reversing valve, which allows the heat pump to operate in reverse mode.
Therefore the use of heat pump is 3 to 5 times more efficient than a boiler that uses traditional fuels.